Engineering Academics Network Annual Congress 2023paid
The Engineering Academics Network Annual Congress is the flagship event of the EPC each year and in 2023, our theme is ‘New Models’. We will be exploring some of the disruptive challenges and innovative approaches in Engineering higher education relating to everything from student pathways into, through and beyond Engineering degrees to how we support our staff to support them. To see the amazing array of speakers, visit the Programme and Speakers tabs.
- New models in recruitment
- New models of delivery
- New models in curriculum
- New models in assessment
- New models in employability
- New models of academic employment and progression
- New models of funding
The full line-up of activities is being updated all the time! Follow our Twitter announcements @EngProfCouncil #EPCCongress23.
We all want to see how the new kid on the block stands out, so take a tour of NMITE’s Building in Hereford city centre and join us for an inspired Congress in NMITE’s stunning and sustainable Skylon Campus (featured above) on the outskirts of historic Hereford – surrounded by the Herefordshire countryside.
Tickets include a hands-on Blacksmith forging workshop and Congress dinner.
Who should attend?
Engineering academics at ALL levels of their career, from deans and heads of department to postgraduates. We recognise that being able to attend conferences is integral for early career staff to develop their careers, therefore we are happy to provide you with heavily discounted tickets for Congress allowing you to ask questions, discover and share innovative ideas, and gain important advice from your peers and experienced professionals from a variety of engineering-related institutions.
*Programme subject to change.
Monday 12th June 2023
Tuesday 13th June 2023
Wednesday 14th June 2023
Joining Harper Adams University in 2008 Dave was Senior Lecturer in Manufacturing Engineering and Project Management at both undergraduate and postgraduate level; Senior Tutor; Learning Innovation Leader and the Manager of the Agricultural Engineering Innovation Centre. During this time, he was engaged in successful research into vehicle concepts and the application of sustainable technologies in construction and agricultural vehicles. During his time at HAU Dave focussed on the development of the teaching activities, environments and practices which influence the learning process; particularly the motivation and engagement of students. In 2018 Dave joined the New Model Institute for Engineering & Technology, as one of the Founding Faculty Professors, co-create the first degree programmes and the learning spaces.
Nick has been involved with a number of educational and youth work charities for over twenty-five years. He is a Director and Trustee of the academies charity Oasis Community Learning and was previously Chair of Governors at the Oasis Academy MediaCityUK in Salford. During 2017, Nick was a Clore Social Leadership Fellow.
An Associate of the think tank Demos, Nick spent seven years working in Westminster and Whitehall, including four years as a Special Adviser to Rt Hon Dame Tessa Jowell MP, Secretary of State for Culture Media and Sport, during the last Labour Government. He has also served as Director of the think tank Policy Network.
In July 2020, Nick received his first public appointment, as a member of the Advisory Board for the Children's Commissioner for England. He also served as a lay member of the General Assembly of the University of Manchester from 2011 to 2019.
Nick lives in Cheshire in North West England and is a graduate of the universities of Oxford (law) and Harvard (public policy).
At TEDI-London, Kay is responsible for leading the academic team in delivering a curriculum that empowers a diverse cohort of students, providing them the skills to solve complex contemporary challenges through an interdisciplinary, project-based programme. Kay’s pedagogical interests particularly lie in learning outcomes-based and technology-enhanced education and assessment.
Jennifer spent her early career as a programmer and quickly realized her real passion was for teaching people to effectively harness the power of technology to drive meaningful, sustainable change. She has worked with various technology, non-profit and academic institutions throughout her career, in both instructional design and executive leadership capacities, always with the goal of empowering people to learn, teach and work in the ways that best support their goals.
Jennifer received her BS in Psychology from the University of Missouri, her MS in Instructional Design and Technology from Fontbonne University and certificates in Advanced Management and Data, Analytics and Interpretation from Washington University’s Olin Business School.
Mike has been on Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) teams for Subject Review, Higher Education Review, Quality Review Visits and Quality and Standards Review for a wide range of Universities, further education colleges and alternative providers. He is a Governor at Northern College for Adult Education, Barnsley, and chairs its Curiculum and Quality Committee.
Mike is a Fellow of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining and is also an active member and on the Board of the UK Engineering Professors’ Council, being also a member of its Recruitment and Admissions sub-committee.
Mike worked nationally as an Associate Director of the Materials Subject Centre from 2003 to 2012 at the University of Liverpool. Mike is also a National Teaching Fellow and a Principal Fellow of the Higher Education Academy.
He is former President of Pearson's Global Online Learning business, including partnerships with Arizona State University and King’s College London, the operation of over 40 fully online schools. He was also President of Pearson UK, including publishing, assessment, the exam board Edexcel, and BTEC.
He is a Visiting Professor at University College London Institute of Education, a governor of Harlow College, a trustee at Education & Employers Taskforce and Honorary Group Captain in the RAuxAF. Rod is Chair of the Academic Advisory Board of education technology business Kortext.
Steve directed Bristol’s Aerospace undergraduate programmes through COVID, and led the Faculty’s widening participation strategy for six years. Introducing new entry routes for a wider spectrum of prior qualifications, and working towards a flexible foundation year offering, his previous career as a secondary Head of Science has stood him in good stead in setting policy and supporting students in transition to higher education.
Through Bristol Flight Lab he has collaborated across the world on aerial data capture in hostile environments, and has research strands in humanitarian and conservation applications, as well as an interest in mitigation of non-CO2 emissions through climate-optimal routing and formation flight.
He has a range of sidelines in STEM engagement and communication, including creative engineering projects with Aardman, and ‘The Cosmic Shed’ podcast – like and subscribe!
Thomas is committed to creating new models to proactively design for quality, sustainability and constructability, and enhance the role of assurance within the construction industry. Thomas sits as the Deputy Secretary on the Construction Special Interest Group (ConSIG) at the Chartered Quality Institute, where he is also a member of the Competency and Training Working Group.
He holds a Postgraduate Diploma in Development Management and is currently studying for a BEng (Hons), both from The Open University. He is due to take a place on the MSc(Eng) in Transport Infrastructure: Design and Construction in September 2023 at The University of Leeds.
He is the former Head of Sustainability, Policy, and Civic Engagement, at the University of Liverpool where he was responsible for their sustainability strategy, advising on issues across higher education, and leading the University’s civic engagement work. Throughout his career he has worked with a range of clients on business development, strategy, and stakeholder engagement.
Previously, James worked at NUS where he oversaw their governance reform, he has published a book on universities and their communities, and holds a Masters of Public Administration where he specialised in the economic resilience of the public sector after Covid, for which he was awarded a Distinction. James specialises in developing civic projects through stakeholder engagement, policy development, and place-based analyses.
His work has included working with regional authorities on their sustainability and research strategies, engagement with local authorities on their arts and cultural offer, advising higher education bodies on policy issues, and as a writer for a number of publications including Wonkhe where he is their current Associate Editor for Research and Innovation.
Early career work pioneered decentralised navigation architectures applied to robotic systems. Latterly, at Dyson, he provided leadership for teams innovating robotic early conceptual research. As Product Technical Lead, he managed the application of those innovations to the 360Heurist, Dyson’s second automated vacuum cleaner on World-wide sale.
His public contributions include chairing advisory boards for EPSRC projects on ground-breaking research. These projects have resulted in successful exploitative and highly innovative companies, including SLAMCore and Opteran Technologies. For the IET he is a committee member of the Academic Accreditation scheme. He is also an active member of the Innovation Advisory Committee for Wales. For the UK government, he has collated and supported ‘calls for information’ for Parliament and House of Lords committees.
In 2017, Rob was awarded a RAEng Visiting Professorship at Imperial College London. He developed this role to engage with 29 national and international universities and supported teaching of over 60 different cohorts and over 2400 students. For the RAEng, Rob has served for over 3 years on the Visiting Professors Management Group. Here he has assisted in selecting over 70 RAEng Visiting Professors. He is a member of the EPC RIKT committee.
Rob is particularly interested in industry-academia interactions, and how university research and advanced technologies (including AI) can help grow and sustain economies and improve wealth and wellbeing of people!
Prior to his academic career, Rink had a long & diverse industry background where he held product development & manufacturing project positions in the fields of textiles, composites, pharmaceuticals, steel & even the finance sector. Rink is registered as a Chartered Engineer & is Fellow of the Institute of Materials, Mining and Minerals (IOM3). Rink joined the Engineering Professors Council (EPC), as a member of the Engineering Education, Employability and Skills (EEES) committee in 2018.
Initially holding an SRC fellowship in the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, she returned to the Cavendish Laboratory as one of the first generation of Royal Society University Research Fellows. Thereafter she was appointed a Lecturer in 1985, a Reader in 1995 and a Professor in 1998. A year later she was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Her research field can best be described as soft matter and biological physics, including polymers, biopolymers and, most recently, cellular biophysics. From 1983-2014 she was a fellow of Robinson College.
She has been awarded a long list of prizes including: CV Boys Prize, Mott Medal and Faraday Medal (all from the Institute of Physics); the Bakerian Lecturer of the Royal Society in 2006; L’Oreal/UNESCO For Women in Science Laureate for Europe; and multiple honorary doctorates.
At The Times Higher Education Awards 2019, Athene received the Lifetime Achievement Award for her ‘indefatigable and pioneering’ efforts to push gender equality to the top of the science policy agenda, a topic that comes up frequently in her regular blogs and tweets.
She has also given evidence to the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee, for its ongoing inquiry into people and skills in UK Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics and the Commons Science and Technology Committee on diversity in STEM.
Dame Athene is married to Matthew Donald, a mathematician; they have two adult children, James and Margaret and two grandchildren.
As Provost for Coventry University Group, Ian is Chief Academic Officer and drives the highest standards of academic excellence across all provision. Coventry University Group includes Coventry University, Coventry University London Campus Ltd, Coventry University College Ltd, Coventry University Online Ltd and 17 other entities. Coventry University is developing an enviable reputation for the quality of its research, focussed on impactful answers to some of the most difficult interdisciplinary problems. Coventry has an long standing record for links to industry and for its enterprise and innovation agenda. All of this is conducted in a profoundly global sense; teaching, research and knowledge transfer.
Ian is proud to be described as a disruptor in UK Higher Education and led the development of Coventry University College in 2011. This lower cost, flexible model of higher education was specifically designed to support near open access to higher education specifically for more mature learners. More recently in 2017 he led the creation of Coventry University Online and the partnership with FutureLearn. Developing great online learning degree courses as well as micro-credentials turned out to be very useful as education moved into remote teaching in early 2020. The next challenge is how online and on-campus blend to suit each individual circumstance. Ian works extensively with EdTech organisations and has chaired the publication of a number of green papers exploring ideas for the next few years.
In 2016 Ian was voted “Inspiring Leader of the Year” at the UK Guardian Higher Education Awards.
Ian is very engaged in his local communities through schools, justice and charity.
Ruth has worked as an independent consultant since 2008. Her work is focused on fostering change in higher education across the world, helping to improve teaching and learning worldwide. Ruth’s recent projects have included:
•a global initiative to improve the reward and recognition of teaching in higher education that is now supporting reform to academic career pathways at over 50 universities worldwide (www.advancingteaching.com);
•a global study on the lessons learnt from the current period of ‘emergency teaching’ resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and how this might impact the trajectory of engineering education in the future (www.ceeda.org);
•a cross-institutional and multi-year survey to capture and track the culture and status of teaching amongst faculty, in which 21 universities from 10 countries are participating (www.teachingcultures.com).
Further details can be found on Ruth’s website – www.rhgraham.org – which provides an outline of recent projects as well as copies of her published reports.
She has served as project manager for the EPC’s Ethics and Sustainability Toolkit initiatives, is Transferable Skills Lead for the Centre for Advanced Timber Technology at NMITE and is Visiting Professor in the School of Computing, Engineering, and the Built Environment at Edinburgh Napier University.
She has led national and international workshops on interdisciplinary learning and teaching and worked with academic and industry partners on various engineering education initiatives. She has recent publications in the International Journal of Engineering Education and The Journal of Problem-Based Learning in Higher Education.
Prior to joining Pearson, Phil spent 14 years championing the very best for Design & Technology and Engineering education as a D&T teacher, subject lead, assistant head, and education consultant, working at schools in both the independent and state sector across South London, Kent and Surrey. Between 2012 and 2016 he founded and led a company called Teach Design, which provided free at the point of demand training and support to design, technology and engineering teachers with an ethos of “For teachers, by teachers”, which led to a national accreditation for social innovation through the London Schools Excellence Fund programme.
She is committed to improving access and inclusion in education, innovative teaching, and the student experience. Dr Kiernan is helping to raise the profile of Staffordshire University nationally through workstreams with the Purpose Coalition, Million Plus, Universities UK, ResPublica and the Department for Education.
Dr Kiernan is an advocate of microcredentials – small bite sized units of learning which differ is size, complexity and duration from traditional qualifications – and their ability to play a key part in addressing current and future skills gaps.
In keeping with the University’s own work to develop the portfolio of the future, Dr Kiernan is leading the University’s development of microcredentials in collaboration with Staffordshire Chambers of Commerce and SMEs.
As part of Dr Kiernan’s remit to refresh the University’s academic strategy, she is helping to position Staffordshire Centre of Learning and Pedagogic Practice (SCoLPP) as a sector influencing pedagogic research and evaluation group.
She is also leading the development of the University’s shift towards hyper-personalised learning using AI functionality and represents the University in the Student Support Re-design project led by HE Student Support Champion, the Student Support Network and Advance HE.
She has also led Staffordshire University’s submission for the Teaching Excellence Framework 2023. Dr Kiernan, who has a PhD in policy making theory from the University of Warwick, has extensive experience of the Higher Education and has worked as Head of Education for the Faculty of Arts and Humanities at Manchester Metropolitan University, where she was also the Director of the Centre for the Study of Football and its Communities. She has also held posts at Sheffield Hallam University and at the University of the West of Scotland, where she was Jean Monnet Chair of European Integration and Public Policy.
Carl practised as a Barrister and was included in The Lawyer magazine’s Hot 100 Lawyers. He was the founding CEO and Vice Chancellor of BPP University where he spent 21 years, creating the UK’s first for-profit University. He was CEO of BPP Holdings plc a FTSE 350 listed company. He has served as a Board member of HEFCE, the Judicial Studies Board, the General Chiropractic Council, UCFB, Doncaster Rovers Belles and was a founding board member of the new regulator for Higher Education in England, the Office for Students (OfS). Carl also was the founding chairman of a new multi academy trust dedicated to providing for disadvantaged pupils in Folkestone, Kent. Carl holds the Gold Award from the Association of Colleges, a companion of honour of the Chartered Management Institute and was awarded a life time achievement award from Education Investor.
Prior to joining NMITE, James worked for the University of Surrey in a range of roles involving the leadership of teams responsible for most non-academic aspects of the University’s activities including Estates, IT, Commercial Services, Community relations, Fundraising and Institutional Governance. In his final year at Surrey, he led an organizational change team to reshape the University to prepare it to meet the challenges facing the Higher Education sector in the coming months.
In addition to his role at Surrey, James has worked with other Higher Education institutions as an advisor on organizational change and as a trustee of their Students’ Unions. This combined his HE and governance experience with his desire to work closely with students to improve the universities they attended. James specializes in organizational development and business change having worked with a number of organisations on restructuring projects. He is also a data compliance specialist so spent considerable time working on projects across the HE sector to prepare universities for the changes resulting from the introduction of the GDPR regulations in 2018.
Prior to joining the University sector, James worked in High Street retailing splitting his time between working in operations for companies such as WH Smith Limited and running his own businesses. He has a degree in Chemistry from the Open University and an MBA.
He was previously Minister of State at the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office from 7 September 2022 to 26 October 2022. Before that, he was Financial Secretary to the Treasury from 2019 to 2021, where he managed the COVID-19 furlough scheme and set up the UK Infrastructure Bank.
Jesse has been the MP for Hereford and South Herefordshire since 2010.
Jesse was previously Paymaster General, and held ministerial roles in the Department for Transport, and the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. As a backbencher, he was a member of the Treasury Select Committee 2010 to 2015, and Chair of the Culture, Media and Sport Committee in 2016 to 2017. Jesse was made a Privy Councillor in 2019.
Before entering politics Jesse was a Director at Barclays. He also researched and taught philosophy at University College London, and ran a charitable project in Communist Eastern Europe.
Jesse is the author of numerous books and pamphlets, including ‘Compassionate Conservatism’, ‘Edmund Burke: Politician, Philosopher, Prophet’ and ‘Adam Smith: What He Thought, and Why It Matters’, which won a Parliamentary Book Award in 2018. Jesse was Spectator Parliamentarian of the Year and The House Backbencher of the Year in 2012.
Jesse has degrees in Classics (Oxford University: MA) and philosophy (University College London: MPhil, PhD). He has held various academic research fellowships, and was elected as a Two-year Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford in 2022. Jesse is an enthusiastic cyclist, hill-walker and amateur jazz musician.
Quanser partners with universities around the world to develop engineering platforms that accelerate research and transform educational experiences.
Neil's journey began by focusing on vocational courses at levels 2 and 3. He quickly gained valuable experience managing NVQs (National Vocational Qualifications) and apprenticeship programs within Further Education (FE) institutions. His passion for education and commitment to providing quality learning opportunities led him to a managerial role at Manchester College, where he was the Divisional Manager of the Computing Higher Education department.
During his tenure at Manchester College, Neil managed foundation degrees and honours degrees in programming and networking. Additionally, he took charge of adult education programs, offering level 2 and 3 courses. During this time, Neil immersed himself in the intricate and regulated world of apprenticeships, gaining invaluable knowledge and expertise.
Seeking new challenges, Neil transitioned to a different organisation where he was crucial in establishing and running higher apprenticeships, specifically for the Lloyds Banking Group.
Neil then ventured into Higher Education Institutions, and over the past five years, he has worked for three different HEIs, showcasing his versatility and adaptability. Neil has excelled both in the professional services and academic aspects of degree apprenticeships.
With his wealth of experience and comprehensive understanding of apprenticeship programs, Neil Raynor continues to make a positive impact in higher apprenticeships at the Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG) at the University of Warwick, where he currently works as an Assistant Professor - Teaching Focused (Apprenticeships).
As Head of Faculty, Lily has responsibility for the faculty curriculum and provision for pre-16 learners up to apprentices and Higher Education, which has recently involved the change and implementation of curriculum from BTEC to T-levels. The Engineering and Manufacturing T-levels are delivered across two campuses in the county, with four specialisms being taught from the various options.
Lily is also a PhD student at the University of the West of England, is an external examiner for WJEC and is a Governor at WCUC.
Before joining the EPC, Johnny has already worked on many issues of concern to our members. Over the past 25 years, he led Push’s research – such as on drop-out rates and student debt – which has had direct impacts on policy.
Johnny’s thought leadership, such as his papers for a graduate levy and a national access fund (2018) and on employability (2015) for the Higher Education Policy Institute, have been influential throughout the sector. Policy issues are also a significant part of his consultancy work, along with communications. His clients have included the European Commission, HEFCE, U-Multirank, as well as many universities, recruiters and charities.
He’s a regular speaker at conferences, awards and in schools. In 2013, his novel A Human Script was published.
As part of my thesis work, I researched and worked on the concept of enhance weathering, which involves the use of natural minerals to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it in solid form. Through my research, I've gained extensive knowledge about the process of carbon sequestration and how it can help mitigate the impacts of climate change. I also developed a deep understanding of the importance of preserving our planet for future generations and making it a better place to live in.
My work on enhance weathering and carbon sequestration has not only expanded my knowledge in the field, but also inspired me to take action towards creating a more sustainable and resilient future. I am passionate about applying my knowledge and skills to contribute to environmental conservation efforts and drive positive change in my community.
Through my academic achievements and dedication to environmental sustainability, I have demonstrated my commitment to excellence and my passion for making a difference. I am a motivated and innovative thinker who is poised to make significant contributions in the fields of energy and sustainability
Vivienne has over 20 years’ experience of working in higher education policy and politics at national and international level. Prior to her role in UUKi, Vivienne was Head of Political Affairs at Universities UK, and led the sector’s response to several major pieces of legislation relating to universities. Before that she worked for the Chair of the House of Commons Education Select Committee, and as policy specialist working on topics including quality, student experience, innovation and university-business links.
Vivienne is a graduate of the University of Cambridge, where she studied English Literature.
Professor of Employability and Learning Innovation, and Associate Dean for Employability for the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, at the University of East Anglia, UK.
Lisa is passionate about employability and learning innovations, has written three books, and publishes and presents widely. Lisa was awarded an Advance HE National Teaching Fellowship for her sustained and impactful work within employability in 2021. Lisa created the multi award-winning Peer Enhanced e-Placement (PEEP) – a work-based learning placement model delivered entirely online which has now been adopted widely across professions within the higher education sector.
At the Royal Academy of Engineering, she’s working with multiple teams and wider stakeholders to re-define engineering skills for the 21st century, part of which includes a project to transform how we educate and train our undergraduate engineers across UK universities so that they graduate well equipped to design, build and manufacture a net positive world.
With over 30 years’ experience of driving policy change, strategy, business development and programme delivery for science and engineering organisations, she’s motivated by innovation and transformation - and above all by driving impact for societal benefit. She’s led projects to develop a new vision for science and maths education for the Royal Society, undertaken research and programme development to stimulate public engagement by UK researchers, promoted engineering for global construction company, Balfour Beatty, and as part of a senior team at the Engineering Council, transformed the engineering profession and its structures in 2002, creating sister organisation, Engineering UK. She is also vice-chair of the governing board of a 4-primary school network in London and a trustee of the charitable foundation, the IBMUK Trust.
The Hammermen Award is an annual prize, presented in association with the Incorporation of Hammermen of Glasgow, to celebrate engineering students’ excellence.
This year’s award has received an unprecedented number of submissions, to view the 12 longlisted finalist posters and their 100 word summaries please click on the icons below:
This project involves identification, testing, and providing proof of concept of a non-fossil coal that can be used to power trains used in the heritage rail sector. This project also tends to investigate the use of an alternative fuel made from non-fossil coal that could be beneficial for other heavy duty sector such as the steel industry. This project will maintain the long-standing legacy of the UK Heritage rail sector thus boosting the tourism industry. Also. this project aligns with decarbonizing initiatives for all sectors of the economy meeting the net zero target by 2050 nationally and globally.
The quest for human development has driven engineering advancements, tremendously shaping human society, economy and environment. However, these advancements negatively impact humanity, signifying the requirement of integrating both ethics and sustainability in engineering to make innovation a reality on a societal level and within organizations. To achieve this, it’s necessary to put humans at the centre of every engineering project for the common good of today and tomorrow. Further, tapping into ‘Collective Intelligence’ helps sustainability meet ethics by providing information flow from both the real and digital world to gauge current sustainability and predict what choices generate greater future sustainability.
The British railway network has over 20,000 miles of track, the vast majority of which uses ballast. Once ballast becomes saturated with contaminants such as diesel, it can no longer adequately drain, and would require maintenance and replacement. Track ballast can have a large carbon footprint through quarrying and transport, and presents human risk through operative exposure to railway. This poster presents a novel approach to lengthening the life of track ballast, and lowering contamination levels, through the prescribed addition of bioremediation agents and biosurfactants in ballast preparations prior to installation on track.
“We don’t stop playing because we grow old; we grow old because we stop playing.” – George Bernard Shaw. Today, the act of play is bound to the elderly in their younger years, tying humanity to a lonely future in old age, which promotes Alzheimer’s, depression and other illnesses. This project aims to end the epidemic of isolation by bridging the ages with intergenerational play. Devices made from locally sourced, sustainable materials, will entertain young and old alike in community outdoor spaces; offering young people role models and improving the lives of older people in society.
Digital twins provide significant value for maintenance, retrofitting, enhancing operational safety and prevents failures with significant environmental impacts. However, digital twin creation is currently a labour and time-intensive process involving manual annotation of laser scans, incurring high costs. Such costs negate the perceived value of the digital twin. Thus, the need arises for a comprehensive methodology to facilitate the automated creation of comprehensive BIM models from scans, and to fuse other forms of data into these models to create geometric digital twins, with minimal manual intervention. This poster focuses on a methodology of automating the industrial facility digital twinning process.
Offshore wind is booming! We are seeing an increase in the number of sites, an increase in turbine capacity and an increase in the distance to shore and water depths we can now exploit. However, this now introduces a new set of challenges, especially in maintaining these expensive assets. Distance to shore and water depth decreases our accessibility to site. In addition, the increase in installed capacity is expected to result in an increase in curtailment. This work rebrands curtailment as an “opportunity” to perform maintenance to keep the turbines turning when market conditions are more profitable.